By Dennis Abts

Datacenter networks give you the communique substrate for big parallel computers that shape the atmosphere for prime functionality computing (HPC) platforms and glossy net functions. The layout of latest datacenter networks is stimulated via an array of purposes starting from conversation extensive climatology, complicated fabric simulations and molecular dynamics to such net purposes as internet seek, language translation, collaborative web purposes, streaming video and voice-over-IP. For either Supercomputing and Cloud Computing the community permits allotted purposes to speak and interoperate in an orchestrated and effective method. This publication describes the layout and engineering tradeoffs of datacenter networks. It describes interconnection networks from topology and community structure to routing algorithms, and offers possibilities for making the most of the rising know-how tendencies which are influencing router microarchitecture. With the emergence of "many-core" processor chips, it really is obtrusive that we'll additionally want "many-port" routing chips to supply a bandwidth-rich community to prevent the functionality restricting results of Amdahl's legislation. we offer an summary of traditional topologies and their routing algorithms and exhibit how expertise, signaling premiums and low-priced optics are motivating new community topologies that scale as much as thousands of hosts. The booklet additionally offers targeted case reports of 2 excessive functionality parallel computers and their networks. desk of Contents: creation / history / Topology fundamentals / High-Radix Topologies / Routing / Scalable change Microarchitecture / method Packaging / Case reviews / final comments

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7 1. 6. 1 Lossy move keep watch over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 1. 6. 2 Lossless circulate keep an eye on . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . eight 1. 7 the increase of ethernet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . nine 1. eight precis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . nine historical past . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . thirteen 2. 1 Interconnection networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . thirteen 2. 2 know-how tendencies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . thirteen 2. three Topology, Routing and move keep an eye on . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sixteen 2. four communique Stack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sixteen Topology fundamentals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 three. 1 advent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 three. 2 different types of Networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 three. three Mesh, Torus, and Hypercubes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 three. three. 1 Node identifiers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 three. three. 2 k-ary n-cube tradeoffs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 viii four High-Radix Topologies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 four. 1 four. 2 four. three five 25 26 26 29 30 30 30 31 34 34 37 Routing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 five. 1 five. 2 five. three five. four five. five 6 in the direction of High-radix Topologies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . expertise Drivers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . four. 2. 1 Pin Bandwidth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . four. 2. 2 reasonable Optical Signaling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . High-Radix Topology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . four. three. 1 High-Dimension Hypercube, Mesh, Torus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . four. three. 2 Butterfly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . four. three. three High-Radix Folded-Clos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . four. three. four Flattened Butterfly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . four. three. five Dragonfly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . four. three. 6 HyperX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Routing fundamentals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . five. 1. 1 targets of a Routing set of rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . minimum Routing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . five. 2. 1 Deterministic Routing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . five. 2. 2 Oblivious Routing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Non-minimal Routing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . five. three. 1 Valiant’s set of rules (VAL) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . five. three. 2 common international Adaptive Load-Balancing (UGAL) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . five. three. three revolutionary Adaptive Routing (PAR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . five. three. four Dimensionally-Adaptive, Load-balanced (DAL) Routing . . . . . . . . . . . . . oblique Adaptive Routing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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