By Pedram Khosronejad

Shi'i Islam has been the authentic faith of Iran from the Safavids (1501-1732) to the current day. The Shi'i international adventure has supplied a wealthy inventive culture, encompassing portray, sculpture, and the creation of artifacts and function, which has helped to embed Shi'i identification in Iran as a part of its nationwide narrative. In what components of fabric tradition has Iranian Shi'ism manifested itself via items or constructions which are precise in the total tradition of Islam? To what volume is the paintings and structure of Iran from the Safavid interval onwards identifiably Shi'i? What does this say in regards to the courting of country, kingdom, and religion in Iran? right here, best specialists hint the cloth background of Iranian Shi'ism inside every one of its political, non secular, and cultural dimensions.
This ebook is released by way of I.B. Tauris in organization with the Iran background Foundation.

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After Abdelkebir Khatibi and Muḥammad Sijelmassi, The Splendour of Islamic Calligraphy, London, Thames and Hudson, 1976, pp. 132–133. nādi ‘aliyyan muẓhira l-‘ajā’ib tajidhu ‘awnan laka fī l-nawā’ib kullu hammin wa-gammin sayanjalī biwilāyatika yā ‘Alī yā ‘Alī yā ‘Alī This invocation formulation, which will depend on the exalted place of ‘Alī because the preferrred energetic agent of God, has been identified virtually far and wide in Iran and the Indian subcontinent due to the fact at the least the first Safavid ruler, Shāh Ismā‘īl I (r. 908–30 AH/1502–24 AD). 60 The latter used it at the early cash minted at his orders, most likely as a planned skill to propagate his ghulāt ideals in ‘Alī’s divinity;61 one instance is a silver coin within the British Museum, struck at Shāh Ismā‘īl’s orders in Kāshān, in 928 AH/1521–2 advert (Figure 64). sixty two at the early Safavid cash, then, the priority of Muḥammad used to be decidedly overshadowed via ‘Alī’s pre-eminence, constructing his exalted place because the ideal lively agent of God. Struck by way of Shāh Ismā‘īl I on his official cash, the formulation quickly grew to become popularised far and wide. It used to be most likely first imitated by way of the best Qizilbāshī Turkmen warriors Khosronejad_Ch5. indd 139 9/6/2011 5:03:11 PM 140 RAYA SHANI determine 60 Calligraphic lion sporting the invocation to ‘Alī, in thuluth (12. five x 19. 7 cm), Hans P. Kraus assortment, attributed by way of Grube to overdue sixteenth-century Persia. After Ernst J. Grube, Islamic work within the selection of Hans P. Kraus, ny, H. P. Kraus, 1972, color plate no. XXXV. determine sixty one Calligraphic lion sporting the invocation to ‘Alī, in thuluth. After Sotheby’s sale catalogue, April 1979, lot 237, pp. 111, 114, the place it truly is considered as Turkish and the script is improperly identified as naskh. Khosronejad_Ch5. indd one hundred forty 9/6/2011 5:03:12 PM Esoteric size of ‘Alī’s Nature determine sixty two 141 Calligraphic lion sporting the invocation to ‘Alī, in thuluth. After Hôtel Drouot sale catalogue, December 1994, lot 288. and courtiers, who used it on official signet seals, made in emulation of the Ismā‘īl cash and representing the official kingdom point. sixty three the best way used to be open for diffusion all through Iran, the place the prayer to ‘Alī quickly turned popular on talismanic items, commonly stone and glass plaques used as pendants,64 and in addition on medicinal magic bowls, conflict criteria, spearheads, coats of chainmail and funerary paintings items. sixty five The invocation utilized at the sum of items simply defined definitely had magical homes besides. sixty six related notions have been most likely hooked up to the invocation formulation while it was once used on goods of fabric tradition made from costlier fabrics. sixty seven except the examples in line with renowned ideals between wealthy and terrible, the invocation formulation used to be additionally often written on a single-sheet web page utilized by calligraphers for a lettering workout (mashq) and as a calligraphic specimen (qit‘a). even though occasionally made for instructing reasons, those single-sheet calligraphies have been often meant to provide excitement, certainly usually compiled in sumptuous albums, to enlightened royal and different official consumers within the Safavid and Indian courts.

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